The 2nd RURBAN meeting in Solapur was held on 2nd March 2019. The meeting was organized by ICLEI South Asia in collaboration with Smart City cell, Solapur City. The aim of 2nd RURBAN meeting was to update the stakeholders on ongoing project activities, share results of IAdapt tools and finalization of pilot project to be implemented in Rural and Urban areas.This meeting was chaired by Ms Shobha Banashetti, Hon’ble Mayor Solapur Municipal Corporation., Mr Deepak Taware, Hon’ble Commissioner, Solapur Municipal Corporation (SMC), Trimbak Dhengle, Dy. Commissioner Solapur Municipal Corporation and Mr Vijay Londhe Dy. CEO of Zillah Parishad Solapur also attended the event.
Representatives from Public Health Engineering Department, Town Planning Department, Health Department, City Engineer from urban areas, Faculties of Dayanand College Solapur, Solapur University, GSDA Department Solapur, Gramsevak (Development officer) from three pilot villages selected within the micro-catchment, elected public representatives of 2 villages, Water Resources Department, Pani Foundation, Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran (Rural water supply) and Agriculture Department along with NGOs working in the selected micro-catchment were present in the RURBAN meeting.
A focus group discussion was organised on 11th February 2019 at the office of the CEO, Zillha Parishad, Solapur. Discussions were held on activities undertaken to implement IAdapt tools, updates on ongoing programs that are being implemented and proposed at the district level and present level of institutional integration. The FGD was presided over by Mr Vijay Londhe, Deputy CEO, Zilla Parishad Solapur. Officials and was attended by 11 engineers from District Water and Sanitation Mission Cell (DWSM).
The state level review meeting took place on 8th February 2019, at Navi Mumbai with the officials of Water and Sanitation Support Organization (WSSO) of Maharashtra. The meeting was chaired by Director, WSSO. Updates on the project activities conducted in Solapur, including micro-catchment selection, identification of RURBAN platform, climate risks to the water resources of the region, vulnerable systems and areas, prioritized projects, capacity building and awareness activities etc. were provided by representatives of ICLEI South Asia.
An exposure visit to Hyderabad was conducted on 21st January 2019, for catchment managers of Vijayawada micro-catchment with the objective to introduce the stakeholders to the best practices in urban water management in Hyderabad. The exposure visit was attended by 2 officials from Vijayawada Municipal Corporation, and 1 official from the Water Resources Department. The exposure visit began with an in-depth discussion with Dr. Dinesh Kumar of IRAP regarding integrated water management concepts. The participants then visited the Sewage Treatment Plant at Amberpet, where they were given a brief about the infrastructure and the functioning of the STP by the Deputy General Manager, and were then given a tour of the primary and secondary treatment units by the Engineer in charge. The next stop as part of exposure visit was the lake restoration site at Durgam Cheruvu where an STP of capacity 5 MLD was constructed to treat the water entering the lake, and the lake premises were beautified with components such as walk way, play area, open gym etc. The manager of the STP briefed the participants about the functioning of the treatment plant and gave them a tour of the lake premises. The exposure visit was wound up with a visit to the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board where the participants had a detailed discussion with the Chief General Manager, Revenue regarding metering in Hyderabad, where he explained in detail the various components of metering including tariff structure, tariff slabs, technology used, payment modes etc., and also suggested the path of action to be followed to make implementation of smart meters a smooth process in Vijayawada.
A field visit to Vijayawada project city was organized for all the project partners on 9th October 2018 with the objective to get the project partners’ familiarized with the catchment area. As part of the field visit, the partners visited the village of Jekkulanekkulam, a village in the Vijayawada micro-catchment, where they interacted with the village Sarpanch and a few local farmers about the agriculture and irrigation methods in the village and the daily challenges faced by them. The next stop as part of the field visit was the Sewerage Treatment Plant in Ajith Singh Nagar where the partners were briefed regarding the working of the STP by the Assistant Engineer and were given a tour of the entire STP from the Inlet chamber to the Outlet. The partners also visited the Head Water Works of Vijayawada Municipal Corporation, where the Assistant Engineer gave a tour of the water treatment, SCADA monitoring, and water quality testing facilities at the site and explained in detail the supply and distribution system for the entire city. The partners conducted consultations with the Additional Commissioner of Vijayawada Municipal Corporation and Project Director, District Water Management Agency, Krishna district.
All partners convened at Chennai on 8th October 2018 to discuss the DST framework which was developed by Athena. Athena made a presentation on the DST framework and initial findings from the DST and the floor was then opened to for review and feedback. Other partners also made a quick presentation of their project updates.
The team conducted a series of stakeholder consultations with State, District, City, Mandal level catchment managers, farmer groups and rural citizens through IDIs and FGDs to discuss the Catchment Management Plan and Decision Support Tool and get their feedback. We were joined by four students pursuing International development studies from The George Washington University, Washington DC. They, as part of their final project opted to work with Urban Institute, a research organisation based in DC. Urban Institute collaborated with Athena Infonomics to give the students an opportunity to work on a component of the IDRC funded IAdapt project. The students were asked to study the institutional experiment (RURBAN) attempted under the IAdapt initiative and evaluate its relevance and sustainability to promote greater co-ordination in water management. They were also asked to identify other levers that could potentially incentivise co-ordination and collaboration within the RURBAN platform. As part of this programme, they visited India for a period of 10 days of which they spent a week in Vijayawada, the project site. They used our stakeholder consultations and FGD sessions to understand the current co-ordination among stakeholders and limitations to further collaboration.
A hands-on-training session on Integrated Water Resources Management was conducted for rural stakeholders in Gannavaram mandal of the pilot micro-catchment on 11th July 2018. The catchment managers shared their issues and challenges with the experts allowing them to curate the session to fit their requirements. With expertise in water shed management, participatory ground water management and rain fed agriculture, the experts engaged in a conversation with the rural stakeholders and catchment managers regarding best practices in water management that can be implemented in villages in Krishna district. While employing participatory tools, the experts discussed good practices on demand side management in rural household use, adaptive water management for agriculture, participatory water shed and ground water management and crop water budgeting. They also went on to learn from the participants on challenges that would be faced while adopting such good practices. The villagers also went on to share the indigenous interventions they have been employing and those the government of Andhra Pradesh have been encouraging. The session was attended by approximately 30 people which included Gannavaram Mandal Parishad President, the Mandal Parishad Development Officer, the ex-Chairman of the Zila Parishad, Sarpanches and Panchayat Secretaries of the villages, representatives of Water User Associations, farmers and residents of the villages.
A field visit to Solapur micro catchment was conducted by experts from University of Delhi. Professor C. R. Babu, Professor Emeritus, Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems, University of Delhi, & Ex-Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Dr Vijay Kumar, Assistant Professor, Shivaji College, University of Delhi along with project team from ICLEI South Asia visited Ekrukh lake, Tale Hippargha and Haglur villages. The visit aimed at identification of pilot projects in the micro-catchment with the aim to reduce pollution in Ekrukh Lake.
Professor C. R. Babu interacted with the local officials (Gram Sevak) and residents in Tale Hippargha and Haglur villages to understand the major water related issues and challenges faced by local residents. Visits to major inlet and outlets points for water and waste water of the lake were conducted and three potential sites around Ekrukh Lake for project implementation have been identified. Professor C. R. Babu recommended ecological restoration of Ekrukh Lake through constructed wetlands. The concept and sites will now be discussed in the RURBAN meeting in Solapur, scheduled for March 2019.
Athena Infonomics organized a visit to IAdapt project site in Vijayawada on 9th October, 2018. Teams working on IAdapt Project from ICLEI SA, IITM and IWMI visited the two mandalas (Vijayawada Rural and Bahnwada mandal) selected within the micro catchment in Vijayawada. The partners also visited the main WTP and STP within the city and met RURBAN stakeholders and core teams in Vijayawada city.
A training program on Decision Support Tool (DST) was conducted for IAdapt project partners by Athena Infonomics on 8th October, 2018 in Chennai. The Decision Support Tool is being developed under IAdapt project to facilitate and support local governments to make climate informed decision for sustainable water management. Project partners from ICLEI SA, IITM and IWMI Sri Lanka participated in the training program.
ICLEI SA organized training program for women’s from Mahila Bachat Gat in Haglur village on 28th September 2018. The training was conducted by Mr Mahesh Sudhakar Siddheshwar, President Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI) Pune. More than 50 women’s from two villages (Haglur and Ekrukh) Participated in the training program.
Various techniques were demonstrated to manage wet waste like composting for agriculture and bio gas for cooking. Various techniques were also shared to construct rain water harvesting structures that are economically feasible for rural areas
ICLEI SA in collaboration with Municipal Corporation Solapur organized a training program on Solid waste management and RWH techniques for women from EWS and Self Help Groups under NULM in SMC on 28th September 2018. The program was chaired by Mr Trimbak Dhengale-Patil, Deputy Commissioner, SMC, Ms Vishali Awad, Technical Expert, NULM, SMC and Mr Mahesh Sudhakar Siddheshwar, President, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI). The training program was conducted by Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI) from Pune and was attended by more than 70 women, municipal sanitary workers and officials working under NULM departments along with ICLEI SA Team.
ARTI presented more than 5 techniques to manage solid waste at individual and community level and trained the participants on wet waste management and Techniques like composting and bio gas generation from wet waste were demonstrated. Mr Siddheshwar also presented various ways to construct rain water harvesting structures like construction of storage tanks and filtration process like sand filtrations etc.
ICLEI South Asia organized two days Training Workshop on Acoustic Leak Detection System for water supply network at Solapur City on 25th &26th September 2018. The technical training was provided by TAISEI International from Hydrabad and was chaired by Mr Gangadhar M. Dulenge, Head of PHED, Solapur Municipal Corporation and Additional Director, Town and Country Planning (TCPO), Solapur Municipal Corporation.
More than 40 Municipal engineers and 20 zonal heads for water work. Onsite training for municipal engineers was also conducted on 26th September at area under smart city Area Based Development Work and elevated water sources supplier area in Solapur City.
ICLEI South Asia conducted Training Programme on Awareness and Improvement of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in various schools in rural areas of Ekrukh micro catchment in Solapur. Various awareness activities with the school children, women groups, youth clubs and local authorities were conducted to strengthen the engagement of local stakeholders in project activities and improve awareness on integrated water management approaches.
More than 120 participants attended these training and awareness activities conducted in Ekrukh, Haglur and Tale Hipparga villages. Various discussions were also conducted with local women and stakeholders to discuss feasible practices for water conservation and management of waste water as well as solid waste.
A workshop was conducted on 12th July 2018 in a secondary school, Haglur village, Solapur to promote WASH practices and awareness on water management. This is the only secondary school in the Haglur village with 50 students between the age of 6 and 12. All students along with their teachers participated in the workshop.
An animated film on “Sanitation and self-hygiene” was shown to the students in secondary school, Haglur village to improve the understanding on WASH. Training was given to sensitize children on hand washing with soap as a key approach to disease prevention and saving water.
A simple quiz was organized with the school children to inform them about solid waste management and how lack of management affects water resources. Training was given on waste segregation and two dustbins were provided to the school to practice waste segregation within the school premises.
Drawing competition on a theme on water management, hygiene and sanitation was to inspire creative thoughts on how best to present water management and WASH practices. A presentation was given to students on water cycle and integrated water management, information on water pollution and factors contributing to water pollution were also shown through caricatures.
Meetings and discussions with local women stakeholders and Mahila Bachat Mandal were conducted to discuss the project activities, importance of water conservation, ways to conserve it and other major issues in their villages.
An exposure visit was conducted by ICLEI South Asia for the administrative and elected representatives of TaleHipparga, Ekrukh and Haglur villages and the Agriculture Officer for Integrated Watershed Management Program from the District Collectorate in Solapur on the 6th of June, 2018.The visit was organised under the Integrated Rural Urban Water Management for Climate based Adaptations in Indian cities (IAdapt) project which is funded by International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.The participants, along with ICLEI South Asia team, visited BibiDarfal and Wadala villages to understand the work done with participatory approach of villagers to solve their own water issues.In BibiDarfal, ICLEI South Asia team gave a brief introduction about the project and its objectives. Mr. Vishal Deshamukh, local expert in water conservation, explained the basic topography of the village.He also focused on the issues faced by villages in terms of water availability, pollution of existing water resources and waste water management problems.
All these problems were leading to health issues, economic loss from agriculture sector and superfluous efforts to collect water for domestic usage for villagers.To help the village overcome these problems, Lokmangal Foundation - a local NGO had conducted awareness campaign and provided financial support for water conservation activities. Nallah (storm water stream) widening, desiltation, plantation, compartment bunding, weir construction, ground water recharge were some of the activities done in the village. All these efforts resulted into ground water recharge as nallah can store more water for longer durations. This has helped the nearby open wells and borewells are receive more water throughout the year. This has also increased the financial incomes for farmers and shortened the distance for drinking water availability.In Wadala, huge amount of work for sanitation and water conservation has been executed. The work was done on the basis of participatory involvement which resulted in Wadala pattern, a model framework, for water conservation works.From ICLEI South Asia, Mr. Sharad Wagh, Mr. Nikhil Kulkarni, Ms. Geeta Sandal and Ms. Monalisa Sen were present during the visit.
The first RURBAN platform meeting was successfully conducted in Vijayawada under the chairmanship of the Krishna District Collector at his camp office on 22 May 2018. The multi-stakeholder RURBAN platform meeting had around 35 participants which included catchment managers from both urban and rural regions and representatives of water users. During the meeting, stakeholders were apprised the project activities and how the IAdapt project hopes to bring in participatory water resource management through the RURBAN platform. Appreciating the project, the District Collector and the Additional Commissioner (on behalf of the Commissioner) representing the rural and urban catchment managers respectively has assured support to the project.
The first RURBAN Shared Learning Dialogue in Solapur under the IAdapt project was conducted on 15 May 2018. The meeting was chaired by the Commissioner, Solapur Municipal Corporation (SMC) and was attended by officials from Public Health Engineering Department, Town Planning Department, City Health Department, Municipal City Engineer, Development Officers of Ekrukh, Haglur and Tale Hipparga villages and elected public representatives of two villages. Officials from Water Resources Department, Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran (Rural Water Supply) and Agriculture Department along with NGOs working in the selected micro-catchment were also present. The RURBAN stakeholders were introduced to the IAdapt Framework and the results of baseline assessments, water balance analysis and hydrological and climate modeling results was shared with them. During the meeting the IAdapt tools were implemented in consultation with the local stakeholders to conduct climate vulnerability assessment and identify climate risks for the fragile systems of water, waste water, solid waste, agriculture and food systems, storm water and health.
The Second Annual Partners Meeting for the IAdapt Project was conducted on 16-17 April 2018 at New Delhi. The meeting was attended by representatives of the different project partners, including ICLEI South Asia, Athena Infonomics, IIT Madras, in person with representatives from IWMI, joining in online. Partners discussed project milestones and achievements of previous year. A detailed work plan was prepared for next year activities .
In February 2018, Dr. Melanie Robertson, Senior Program Officer from IDRC, conducted a review of the project followed by a two day site visit to Ekrukh micro-catchment in Solapur. During her visit she met with Mrs. Shobha Banshetty, Mayor of Solapur and Mr. Laxman Chalwadi, City Engineer and the nodal officer for the project in the city. At Solapur District Collectorate office, she met with Mr. Ravindra Mane, Agriculture Officer and Information Officer for Integrated Watershed Management Program to discuss the project objectives and possible collaboration with the district government. She also met the government officials in Ekrukh village and Tale Hipparga village and interacted with the local residents and farmers to understand the water issues of the region.
International Water Management Institute conducted a review of different IUWM toolkits used to devise integrated urban water management solutions. The study aims to understand the methodologies applied to tackle the complexity of urban water systems caused by the constant changes due to demographics, urban renewal, infrastructure aging and replacement etc. The toolkits reviewed include are Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and the Water Research Foundation (WRF), The Global Water Partnership, the toolkit prepared by the EU funded SWITCH project and ADOPTIUWM Toolkit by ICLEI South Asia and the IRAP.
An integrated framework has been developed under the IAdapt project to formulate a Catchment Management Plan (CMP) for water resources integrating rural and urban issues. The framework helps to develop a baseline profile of the micro-catchment, conduct climate change and socio economic vulnerability assessment, carry out a water balancing assessment, identify fragile systems linked to the water resources and develop resilient strategies promoting climate adaptive, integrated water resource management approaches. The Framework consists of five phases and uses various and tools that can be implemented by the local authorities. This integrated CMP based on informed decision making and community participation, can assess and reconcile water needs in the context of a changing climate and set the priorities for effective water management accordingly.
On 6 April 2018, officials of Public Health and Engineering Department, Solapur Municipal Corporation and Principal of local Agricultural Institute visited Ekrukh micro-catchment near Solapur city to understand the issues and climate based adaptations in the selected micro-catchment area of Ekrukh (Hipparga) lake. The team visited Ekrukh lake, Haglur and Tale Hipparga villages and interacted with village political heads and farmers to know about existing water levels, quality of water, water supply schemes, and sanitation and farming practices. The visit was crucial to strengthen the collaborative efforts from Rural-Urban stakeholders and partnership for integrated water resource management initiatives. A community engagement meeting was conducted to inform local communities about water cycle, principles of integrated water management and rural and urban ecosystem based services and water interactions.
Multi-stakeholder core teams have been formulated in both project cities (Solapur and Vijayawada) to support the IAdapt Process by providing information through stakeholder consultations. The core teams include Mayors, Commissioners, Public Health and Engineering Department, heads of village level authorities (Gram Panchayats), representation from the district government like water resources department, agriculture department, ground water boards, major industrial groups, NGOs and local institutes. A nodal person was also identified at the district collectorate office and at the Municipal Corporation level as the focal points for communication. Each city has developed a RURBAN platform consisting of representatives from the decision makers and leaders of the municipal corporations, District Collectors, state government agencies such as from the Pollution Control Board and Ground Water Boards, state government departments such as Urban Development and Water Resources Departments, as well as politically influential individuals such as Members of Legislative Assembly and Member of Parliament. The multi-stakeholder RURBAN platform is designed to bring together rural and urban stakeholders, to enable greater exchange of information, promote collaborative actions, and formulate and design plans for improved water management in the micro-catchment.
Hydrological modeling for each selected micro-catchment areas in Solapur and Vijayawada have shown the potential impacts of climate change on water resources and the linkages therein. The study, conducted by Indian Institute of Technology Madras, used HEC-HMS models for simulation of runoff for the Vijayawada basin of Krishna Watershed while for Solapur city, empirical method was used for calculating runoff.
Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and site visits were conducted in each delineated micro-catchment to collect information on the socio economic profiles, livelihood opportunities, landuse pattern, water management and consumption pattern in rural and urban areas along with climatic hazard history in villages and city. Six FGDs were conducted in Solapur covering seven villages, while in Vijayawada, 12 FGDs were conducted covering rural and urban areas. Discussions were carried out with administrative heads in the villages to get information about available water resources, infrastructure and changes experienced by villagers in climate and ecosystem.
The floral diversity was assessed through quadrat sampling of trees, shrubs and herbs in the different villages of the micro-catchments.The information was used to assess the species diversity index and richness in each micro-catchment. A SWOT Analysis for each delineated micro-catchments was conducted to assess their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats on the basis of collected data from the FGDs, the stakeholder discussions and the quadrat studies. This helped to prioritize and select one micro-catchment for implementation of the project.
Micro-catchment areas were delineated in Bhima River basin for Solapur city and Krishna River basin for Vijayawada. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and hydrological models were created to study the flow accumulation, drainage direction, slope etc., of the study areas. The interactions of water resources between urban and rural areas were also highlighted. A basin map, containing unique identifiers for each watershed basin within the study area was developed. In Vijayawada, several micro-catchments were identified, but only four included both urban and rural areas. In Solapur, four micro-catchments were identified.
The first project partners meeting was conducted on 21-22 April, 2017 in Chennai. The partners, ICLEI, Athena, IWMI and IIT Madras, discussed project milestones and planned the project activities. A detailed work plan was prepared to achieve the project milestones.
An inception workshop was organized to kick start the projects selected under ‘Cities and Climate Change’ call by International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Dhulikhel, Nepal from 4-6 May, 2016. The workshop helped to develop a cohesive understanding of the project among its partners in relation to project objectives, implementation arrangements, deliverables, and team responsibilities. It deepened the understanding of how the different projects can best contribute to city scale planning and governance in the face of climatic uncertainties and rapid socioeconomic change. The workshop helped outline the logical framework of the project and develop an overall action plan.